Referring back to the precession of the Equinoxes, as the Sun crosses one constellation in the Northern Hemisphere's spring Equinox March 21 , it will cross the opposite sign in the spring Equinox in the Southern Hemisphere September For instance, the Age of Pisces is complemented by its opposite astrological sign of Virgo the Virgin ; so a few refer to the Piscean age as the 'Age of Pisces-Virgo'. Ray Grasse also claims that each sign of the zodiac is involving with the opposite sign. William Sullivan in The Secret of the Incas claims there is a direct connection between the history of the Inca Empire and precession of the equinoxes.
The great demarcation point in the history of the astrological ages is around BC when the Greek astronomer-astrologer Hipparchus from observation discovered that the great immovable sphere of fixed stars was not fixed but slowly moving eastwards due to what is now known as precession of the equinoxes.
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It is possible that some other astronomers before Hipparchus had also noticed the phenomenon, but it is Hipparchus who is credited with this discovery. This discovery by Hipparchus is not entirely unexpected as Hipparchus is considered to have been the greatest observational astronomer in his time and up until Tycho Brahe in the 16th century AD.
What is highly contentious in modern times is the claim by many that observation of the effects of precession of the equinoxes was known well before the time of Hipparchus and his contemporaries in Greece or even Mesopotamia. It was an attempt to marry science and mythology that had become separated by the ancient Greeks. Santillana and von Dechend believed that the old mythological stories handed down from antiquity were not random fictitious tales but were accurate depictions of celestial cosmology clothed in tales to aid their oral transmission.
The chaos, monsters, and violence in ancient myths are representative of the forces that shape each age. They believed that ancient myths are the remains of preliterate astronomy that became lost with the rise of the Greco-Roman civilization. Santillana and von Dechend state that ancient myths have no historical basis but a cosmological one based on a primitive form of astrology. They recognized the importance of the heliacally rising constellation as markers for the astrological ages and claimed that knowledge of this phenomenon had been known for thousands of years previously.
They claim that to understand ancient thinking it is necessary to understand astrology, not the modern sun-sign or horoscopic astrology, but the astrology of ancient times which was the lingua franca of ancient times. They go further and state that our knowledge of the dawn of astrology and its relationship to ancient myths and star names is limited, and only extends back to about BC, which was during the Renaissance of Sumerian Culture; we are not able, they say, to examine older material on the subject.
In Hamlet's Mill it is claimed that the ancient Greeks knew of three successive destructions that correlate to three ages, and that since the beginning of history the vernal point has moved through Taurus, Aries, and Pisces. Hesiod in Works and Days refers to five successive ages. As early as , modern researchers were examining evidence for knowledge of precession of the equinoxes and astrological ages before Hipparchus.
Drummond expounds on his hypothesis that a greater part of the Hebrew Scriptures are merely allegorical writings that hide the true content. Furthermore, the Orientalists were mainly concerned with astronomy and most of their ancient myths are really disguised astronomical records. Drummond makes his case that at the time of Abraham , the Amorites first recorded the shift from the Age of Taurus to the Age of Aries as represented by the year commencing with the Ram Aries rather than the bull Taurus.
The Book of Joshua indicates that by the time of Moses the equinoxes had already shifted from Taurus to Aries , as Moses had ordained that the civil year should commence with the month of Nisan Aries rather than the month of Taurus. The feast of the Passover is probably a celebration of the Age of Aries with the Paschal Lamb representative of Aries, traditionally associated with the symbol of the ram or sheep. Drummond also hypothesizes that most number references in ancient texts were coded to hide their real value by multiples of 1, For example, in the Old Testament Joshua commanded 30, men, and he slew 12, inhabitants of the city of Ai.
The historian Berosus stated the Babylonians commenced astronomical observations 49, years 7 x 7 x before Alexander the Great. The problem of understanding the exact nature of ancient astrology is that it was only partly documented, leaving the question of the extent of their undocumented astrological knowledge. Michael Baigent in From the Omens of Babylon: Astrology and Ancient Mesopotamia suggests that there is evidence that there was probably an older or parallel oral tradition of astrology at the time of publication of Enuma Anu Enlil  believed published over the period — BC.
The ancient Mesopotamians believed that history repeated itself after a massive cycle of many years. In the early post- Hipparchus period, two schools of thought developed about the slow shift of the fixed sphere of stars as discovered by Hipparchus. One school believed that at 1 degree shift per years, the sphere of fixed stars would return to its starting point after 36, years.
The trepidation school believed that the fixed stars first moved one way, then moved the other way - similar to a giant pendulum. It was believed that the 'swinging' stars first moved 8 degrees one direction, then reversed this 8 degrees travelling the other direction. In the 5th century AD, the Greek Neoplatonist philosopher Proclus mentions that both theories were being discussed.
The Indians around the 5th century AD preferred the trepidation theory but because they had observed the movement of the fixed stars by 25 degrees since ancient times since around BC , they considered that trepidation swung back and forth around 27 degrees. The significant early exponent of the 'circular 36,' years method was Ptolemy and, due to the status placed upon Ptolemy by later scholars, the Christian and Muslim astronomers of the Middle Ages accepted the Great Year of 36, years rather than trepidation.
However some scholars gave credence to both theories based on the addition of another sphere which is represented in the Alfonsine tables produced by the Toledo School of Translators in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Alfonsine tables computed the positions of the sun, moon, and planets relative to the fixed stars.
The Italian astronomer Cecco d'Ascoli , professor of astrology at the University of Bologna in the early 14th century, continued to have faith in trepidation but believed it swung 10 degrees in either direction. Copernicus refers to trepidation in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium published in Though the one degree per hundred years calculated for precession of the equinoxes as defined by Hipparchus and promulgated by Ptolemy was too slow, another rate of precession that was too fast also gained popularity in the 1st millennium AD.
By the fourth century AD, Theon of Alexandria  assumed a changing rate trepidation of one degree per 66 years. The tables of the Shah Zij-i Shah  originate in the sixth century, but are unfortunately lost, but many later Arabic and Persian astronomers and astrologers refer to them and also use this value. There exists evidence that the modern calendar developed by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century AD commencing with the birth of Jesus Christ at AD 1 was influenced by precession of the equinoxes and astrological ages.
Dionysius' desire to replace Diocletian years Diocletian persecuted Christians with a calendar based on the incarnation of Christ was to prevent people from believing the imminent end of the world. At the time it was believed that the Resurrection and end of the world would occur years after the birth of Jesus. The current Anno Mundi calendar theoretically commenced with the creation of the world based on information in the Old Testament. It was believed that based on the Anno Mundi calendar Jesus was born in the year or years after the world was created with the year of the Anno Mundi calendar marking the end of the world.
Anno Mundi approximately AD was thus equated with the resurrection of Christ and the end of the world. He was heavily influenced by ancient cosmology, in particular the doctrine of the Great Year that places a strong emphasis on planetary conjunctions. This doctrine says that when all the planets were in conjunction that this cosmic event would mark the end of the world.
Dionysius accurately calculated that this conjunction would occur in May AD Dionysius then applied another astronomical timing mechanism based on precession of the equinoxes. Though incorrect, some oriental astronomers at the time believed that the precessional cycle was 24, years which included twelve astrological ages of 2, years each. Dionysius believed that if the planetary alignment marked the end of an age i. He therefore deducted 2, years from the May conjunction to produce AD 1  for the incarnation of Christ.
The 15th century Italian Renaissance philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola published a massive attack on astrological predictions, but he did not object to all of astrology and he commented on the position of the vernal point in his day. Pico was aware of the effects of precession of the equinoxes and knew that the first point of Aries no longer existed in the constellation of Aries.
Pico not only knew that the vernal point had shifted back into Pisces , he stated that in his time, the vernal point zero degrees tropical Aries was located at 2 degrees sidereal Pisces. This suggests that by whatever method of calculation he was employing, Pico expected the vernal point to shift into sidereal Aquarius age years later as a one degree shift takes 72 years.
The Earth, in addition to its diurnal daily rotation upon its axis and annual rotation around the Sun, incurs a precessional motion involving a slow periodic shift of the axis itself: approximately one degree every 72 years. This motion, which is caused mostly by the Moon's gravity , gives rise to the precession of the equinoxes in which the Sun's position on the ecliptic at the time of the vernal equinox, measured against the background of fixed stars, gradually changes with time.
In graphical terms, the Earth behaves like a spinning top, and tops tend to wobble as they spin. The spin of the Earth is its daily diurnal rotation.
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The spinning Earth slowly wobbles over a period slightly less than 26, years. From our perspective on Earth, the stars are ever so slightly 'moving' from west to east at the rate of one degree approximately every 72 years.
One degree is about twice the diameter of the Sun or Moon as viewed from Earth. The easiest way to notice this slow movement of the stars is at any fixed time each year. The most common fixed time is at the vernal equinox around 21 March each year. In astrology, an astrological age has usually been defined by the constellation or superimposed sidereal zodiac in which the Sun actually appears at the vernal equinox. This is the method that Hipparchus appears to have applied around BC when he calculated precession.
This means the Sun crosses the equator at the vernal equinox moving backwards against the fixed stars from one year to the next at the rate of one degree in seventy-two years, one constellation on average in about years, and the whole twelve signs in about 25, years, sometimes called a Platonic Year.
However the length of the ages are decreasing with time as the rate of precession is increasing. Therefore, no two ages are of equal length. Approximately every 26, years the zodiacal constellations, the associated sidereal zodiac , and the tropical zodiac used by western astrologers basically align. This alignment is often called the fiducial point and, if the fiducial point could be found, fairly exact timeframes of all the astrological ages could be accurately determined if the method used to determine the astrological ages is based on the equal-sized 30 degrees per age and do not correspond to the exact constellation configuration in the sky.
However this fiducial point is difficult to determine because while there is no ambiguity about the tropical zodiac used by western astrologers, the same cannot be said of the sidereal zodiac used by Vedic astrologers. Vedic astrologers do not have unanimity on the exact location in space of their sidereal zodiac. This is because the sidereal zodiac is superimposed upon the irregular zodiacal constellation, and there are no unambiguous boundaries of the zodiacal constellations.
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Modern day astronomers have defined boundaries, but this is a recent development by astronomers who are divorced from astrology, and cannot be assumed to be correct from the astrological perspective. While most astronomers and some astrologers agree that the fiducial point occurred in or around the 3rd to 5th centuries AD, there is no consensus on any exact date or tight timeframe within these three centuries. A number of dates are proposed by various astronomers and even wider timeframes by astrologers.
For an alternative approach to calibrating precession, see Alternative approach to calibrating precession in New, alternative, and fringe theories section below. As an example of a mystic contemporary approach to precession, in Max Heindel 's astrology writings,  it is described, that last time the starting-point of the sidereal zodiac agreed with the tropical zodiac occurred in AD A year after these points were in exact agreement, the Sun crossed the equator about fifty seconds of space into the constellation Pisces.
The year following it was one minute and forty seconds into Pisces, and so it has been creeping backwards ever since, until at the present time the Sun crosses the equator in about nine degrees in the constellation Pisces. Based on this approach, it will thus be about years before it actually crosses the celestial equator in the constellation Aquarius. However this is only one of many approaches and so this must remain speculation at this point of time.
Symbol for Leo :. When the March equinox used to occur in Leo. The major event in this age was deglaciation of what now constitutes much of the modern habitable world. The deglaciation ultimately caused a foot 90 m rise in the sea level. The sign Leo is a Fire sign and is mythically ruled by the Sun in astrology. Symbol for Cancer :. When the March equinox used to occur in Cancer ;. In astrologic mythology this age marks the beginning of civilization, with domestication of farm animals and nomadic people settling down to living in permanent dwellings.
Widespread evidence of the mother goddess in the Near East the 'mother' archetype in all shapes and forms is always related to the sign Cancer. Symbol for Gemini :. When the March equinox used to occur in Gemini ;. During this mythological age writing developed, [ dubious — discuss ] and trade started to accelerate.
The constellation can be seen as two people holding hands thought to be twins , believed by some [ who? In myths associated with the constellation of Gemini, both writing including literature, newspapers, journals, magazines, and works of fiction and trade including merchants are traditional archetypes belonging to the sign of Gemini. Multiple gods, such as the pantheon of gods in Ancient Greek literature, are believed to have appeared in this Gemini age [ dubious — discuss ] probably in Sumer Mesopotamia.
Symbol for Taurus :. When the March equinox used to occur in Taurus ;. Bull worshiping cults began to form in Assyria , Egypt , and Crete during this mythological age. Symbol for Aries :. When the March equinox used to occur in Aries ;. Aries represents a Fire symbol as well as bold actions, a lot of these behaviors can be seen during any age. However, the themes emphasised during this age relate to courage, initiative, war, and adventure.
Nations during this age such as the expanding empires of China , Persia , Greece , and Rome , are often cited as examples of the archetypes of Aries in action. Also the Aries constellation shows a ram running. This could correspond with the sacrifice of Abraham's Ram. According to the Roman state religion, the Roman people were the "Sons of Mars". Aries is associated with the metal iron , and iron ore was for the first time smelted and worked into iron swords in Anatolia during the early phase of this era, replacing the heavier, softer-metalled, duller-edged bronze swords of the previous Taurus Age.
Traits of Aries such as 'initiative' may suggest the explosion of originality in the development of social aspects, sciences and arts in regions such as Ancient Greece but at the same time traits such as 'Impulsivity' may be attributed to the various Wars of the time. The Age of Aries ushered in efforts to replace polytheism with monotheism. The earliest known attempt was by the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten , who, in about BC, decreed the Sun God Aten to be the supreme deity, apparently in reaction to his earlier lack of inclusion in religious rites by his family.
After his death, however, power reverted to the original polytheistic priests, who re-established the old religion. Speculation including that of Freud has it that later, during the reign of Ramesses II , Moses was influenced by rumour of Akhenaten's revolutionary idea, and grasped the idea of a single supreme God, who especially favoured his people, as an inspirational mechanism that best suited his people held in bondage.
The symbol of Aries can be seen as representing the power of multiple gods streaming down into a single god-head. Moses born c. Astrological symbol: Maiden. It is representative for people born between August 23 and September 22 when the Sun is in Virgo. This symbol denotes knowledge, shyness, clarity of thought and an introspective behavior. In Italy it is named Vergine while the French call it Vierge. However, the Latin origin of the Virgin, the August 28 zodiac sign is Virgo.
Opposite sign: Pisces. This is the sign directly across the zodiac circle from the Virgo zodiac sign. It suggests modesty and secrecy and these two are considered to make great partnerships. Modality: Mobile.
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The modality exposes the admirable nature of those born on August 28 and their idealism and intellectuality in regard to most existential aspects. Ruling house: The sixth house. This combination suggests that Virgos are most interested in work related matters and put a great price on care for their health.
This house is the space of efficiency, service and health issues. Ruling body: Mercury. This celestial body is said to influence conversation and idealism. Mercury is known as the messenger of the gods in Greek mythology. Mercury also suggests the practicality in the lives of these natives. Element: Earth. This element represents conformity and responsibility and is considered to dominate over the confident and polite people born under the August 28 zodiac sign.
Earth shapes things in association with water and fire. Lucky day: Wednesday. This day is representative for the analytical nature of Virgo, is ruled by Mercury and suggests ingenuity and cleverness. People born on August 28 are analytical and correct. They are sociable and energetic by nature but also respectful and don't usually force things in any way. They are witty and enjoy both tasks that require focus and art related activities. They feel the need to be supported in their endeavors but at the same time they prefer to do things themselves if the alternative involves disorderliness in any way.
They love to spend their time engaged in mind challenging activities. Positive traits: The natives in this sign are reliable and stable and this is what they expect from others in return. They are realistic and cautious but can also launch themselves in courageous endeavors, but only when they've checked all facts at least once. They are progressive but orderly and don't let their train of thoughts disrupt them from the initial things they were working on. Negative traits: These natives are worrisome and cautious and also overly critical.
This is a time bomb for them and they sometimes lose their temper and act in a very unpredictable way without really understanding why they are reacting the way they do. They are very intolerant although they don't show it and have strong beliefs of how people can or can't behave. Lovers born on August 28 are affectionate and committed. They leave passion aside in order to build a dependable and trustworthy relationship. They are attracted to persons that are as intelligent and trustworthy as them and even more to someone who is sensible and caring and to whom they can offer support and protection.
They believe in love at first sight and don't need much time to get attached to someone. They are persons of extremes in love and sometimes this attitude will have them prone to disappointment. They are used to intensely live every aspect of their life and their relationships are no exception. They are likely to fall in love at a young age as they are attractive and positive persons. Concerning their family life they will marry when they are completely ready and they will probably be cool parents if they choose to have a one big family.
They are most compatible with those born on the 4th, 6th, 8th, 13th, 15th, 17th, 22nd, 24th, 26th, and 31st. August 28 Zodiac people are most attached to the other two earth signs: Taurus and Capricorn as they tend to share the same vision of life. In love, Virgo is in a constant search for someone to nurture, help grow and to whom they can give everything they have and the best to offer this occasion to them is the native in Pisces.
The least compatible with people born on August 28 are those born under Leo. As for the rest of compatibilities between the other star signs and Virgo, you know what they say, stars predispose but people dispose. This hue denotes refinery, traditionalism and depth. This zodiac color is advised to be used in accessories and items of clothing.
People with navy blue as sign color are sociable and fun loving persons and at some point they might appear as superficial. They have a tendency to keep to themselves, be it that we're talking about hidden feelings or even casual activities. The Virgo birthstone used in astrology for those with August 28 is the sharp Sapphire.
Sapphire presents a precious stone that reflects sincerity and constancy. This zodiac birthstone should be used in pendants, bracelets and other accessories. This material is said to channel all energies therefore making the Virgo native even more analytical and observant. This gemstone comes in white, blue and pink shades.
Another gemstone considered influential for Virgo natives is Amethyst. It suggests sobriety and intelligence. Morning Glory is the flower of preference for Virgo natives, especially those born under the August Morning Glory is one of those plants that denote a spirit of observation and introspection.